In November 2001 at the age of 30, Minister Dutton was elected as the Federal Member for Dickson in Queensland.

In 2004, Minister Dutton became one of the youngest Ministers since Federation with his appointment as Minister for Workforce Participation, with responsibility for the Job Network, Disability Employment Services, Work for the Dole and transition to work opportunities for all unemployed Australians.

In January 2006, Minister Dutton was promoted to Minister for Revenue and Assistant Treasurer. He worked closely with the then Treasurer, Peter Costello, in areas including Budget preparation, taxation, superannuation, prudential regulation, and competition and consumer policy.

Following the change of Government in November 2007, Minister Dutton was promoted to Shadow Cabinet as Minister for Finance, Competition Policy and Deregulation. In September 2008, he was promoted to Shadow Minister for Health and Ageing.

Following the 2013 Federal Election, Minister Dutton was appointed Minister for Health and Minister for Sport and on 23 December 2014 he was appointed Minister for Immigration and Border Protection. On 20 December 2017, he was appointed the Minister for Home Affairs and the Minister for Immigration and Border Protection. On 27 August 2018, he was sworn in as the Minister for Home Affairs. Following the swearing in of the second Morrison Ministry on 29 May 2019, Mr Dutton remained as Minister for Home Affairs.

Prior to entering Parliament, Minister Dutton employed 40 staff in his small business following a successful career as a Queensland police officer, including in the Drug Squad, Sex Offenders Squad and the National Crime Authority.

Minister Dutton is married to Kirilly and is the very proud father of Rebecca, Harry and Tom.​